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Table 1 Developed measures for welfare assessment of growing pigs on farms

From: Development of pig welfare assessment protocol integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures

Welfare criteria Measures
I. Good feeding  
 1 Absence of prolonged hunger1 Body condition scores
 2 Feed quality2 Feed condition4
 3 Absence of prolonged thirst1 Water supply4
II. Good housing  
 4 Environmental condition2 Temperature and relative humidity5
 5 Ventilation status (air quality)2, 3 Particulate matter and ammonia concentration5
 6 Comfort around resting1 Bursitis and manure on the body
 7 Thermal comfort1 Shivering, panting, and huddling
 8 Ease of movement1 Space allowance
 9 Other facility condition3 Conditions of floor, fencing, feeder, and other facilities inside the farm4
III. Good health  
 10 Absence of injuries1 Lameness, wounds, tail biting
 11 Absence of disease1 Coughing, sneezing, pumping, twisted snouts, rectal prolapse, scouring, skin condition, ruptures, and hernia
 12 Health management3 Veterinary-client-patient relationship, medical record, and hospital pen4
 13 Euthanasia2 Number of euthanized animal and euthanasia methods
IV. Appropriate behavior  
 14 Expression of social behavior1 Negative and positive social behavior
 15 Expression of other behavior1 Exploratory behavior
 16 Good human animal relationship1 Fear of humans
 17 Positive emotional state1 Qualitative behavior assessment
  1. 1Based on Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocols [5].
  2. 2New criteria added by the authors.
  3. 3Based on Swine Welfare Assurance Program [6].
  4. 4Management-based measure.
  5. 5Environment-based measure.