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Table 1 Particle size distribution, physical effectiveness factors (pef), and physically effective fiber (peNDF) content of the feeds

From: Effects of by-product feed-based silage on feeding, rumination, and excretion in growing Hanwoo heifers

Item Rice straw BF-based silage 1) Alfalfa hay Concentrate mix
% dry matter (DM) retained on sieves
 Above 19.0 mm 97.8 10.3 45.8 0.8
 8.0–19.0 mm 1.2 8.2 10.7 53.9
 1.18–8.0 mm 0.9 54.6 26.2 45.1
 Below 1.18 mm 0.1 26.9 17.3 0.2
Pef8.0 99.0 18.5 56.5 53.9
pef1.18 99.9 73.1 82.7 39.4
peNDF8.0, % of DM 71.2 9.4 27.7 17.6
peNDF1.18, % of DM 71.8 37.0 40.6 12.9
  1. 1)BF-based silage was a by-product feed-based silage, which was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial culture, and was ensiled for over 2 weeks.