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Table 4 Effects of by-product feed-based silage on feeding, rumination, chewing, and resting in growing Hanwoo heifers

From: Effects of by-product feed-based silage on feeding, rumination, and excretion in growing Hanwoo heifers

Item Diet 1) with SE p-value
RS RSBFS BFS 2)
  min/d   
Eating time 289.0a 230.8b 159.8c 17.6 0.0002
 Per kg of DM 44.3a 34.6b 20.1c 2.6 0.0001
 Per kg of NDF 105.2a 84.6b 50.3c 6.3 0.0001
 Per kg of peNDF8.0 149.2 138.3 131.4 10.9 0.2978
 Per kg of peNDF1.18 162.6a 137.7 a 87.6 b 10.1 0.0001
Ruminating time 458.3a 282.0b 317.5b 26.0 0.0002
 Per kg of DM 70.2a 42.2b 39.9b 3.7 0.0001
 Per kg of NDF 166.8a 103.4b 100.0b 9.1 0.0001
 Per kg of peNDF8.0 237.0a 169.0b 261.2a 17.1 0.0012
 Per kg of peNDF1.18 257.9a 168.3b 174.1b 14.9 0.0003
Chewing time3) 747.3a 512.8b 477.3b 31.7 0.0001
 Per kg of DM 114.5a 76.8b 60.0c 4.6 0.0001
 Per kg of NDF 271.9a 188.0b 175.0b 11.5 0.0001
 Per kg of peNDF8.0 386.5a 307.2b 392.7a 19.8 0.0033
 Per kg of peNDF1.18 420.5a 306.1b 261.7b 18.1 0.0001
Resting time 692.8b 927.3a 962.8a 31.3 0.0001
Standing time 791.8a 504.8b 668.0a 44.5 0.0004
Sitting time 648.2b 935.2a 772.0b 44.5 0.0004
  1. 1)The three diets were as follows: RS (free access to rice straw); RSBFS (free access to rice straw and BF-based silage); and BFS (free access to BF-based silage).
  2. 2)BF-based silage (BFS) was a by-product feed-based silage, which was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial culture, and was ensiled for over 2 weeks.
  3. 3)Chewing time = eating time + rumination time.
  4. a,b,cMeans with different superscripts within the same row are significantly different (p < 0.05).