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Table 2 In vitro rumen fermentation parameters as affected by the addition of Korean rice wine residue (RWR)

From: Rumen fermentation and performance of Hanwoo steers fed total mixed ration with Korean rice wine residue

Parameters Incubation Con T1 T2 SEM P value
  time (h)      All C vs T
Total gas (ml) 0 62.67 65.00 64.33 1.181 0.460 0.248
12 104.00 100.67 101.33 1.264 0.312 0.149
24 122.00 120.67 121.00 1.953 0.884 0.643
48 150.33 155.00 166.33 10.630 0.608 0.479
pH 0 6.60 6.62 6.64 0.014 0.163 0.101
12 6.43a 6.38ab 6.28c 0.033 0.046 0.049
24 6.23 6.27 6.30 0.050 0.655 0.411
48 6.18 6.18 6.16 0.044 0.949 0.876
Ammonia Nitrogen (mM) 0 3.39 3.41 3.44 0.490 0.998 0.956
12 5.77a 5.26a 3.65b 0.281 0.029 0.031
24 7.65 6.09 6.19 0.887 0.598 0.340
48 13.54 11.25 12.56 1.362 0.586 0.408
  1. Values are shown as mean. Means for the same period (0 h, 12 h, 24 h, or 48 h) marked with the same letters (a > b > c) did not differ significantly within treatments (P < 0.05), as determined by Duncan's multiple range test. SEM is the standard error mean. C vs T is the comparison between control and treatments. Control (Con: 0 % RWR + TMR), Treatment 1 (T1: 10 % RWR + TMR), Treatment 2 (T2: 15 % RWR + TMR)