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Table 3 In vitro volatile fatty acid concentration as affected by the addition of Korean rice wine residue (RWR)

From: Rumen fermentation and performance of Hanwoo steers fed total mixed ration with Korean rice wine residue

Parameters Incubation time (h) Con T1 T2 SEM P value P value
All C vs T
Acetate 0 23.88 23.56 23.57 0.163 0.075 0.081
(mM) 12 31.74a 28.52ab 26.64b 1.348 0.101 0.050
24 38.05a 36.04ab 32.54b 1.310 0.075 0.067
48 41.81 41.21 40.77 0.361 0.387 0.224
Propionate 0 5.09 5.10 5.24 0.059 0.238 0.199
(mM) 12 13.87 11.06 9.79 1.238 0.169 0.080
24 18.44a 16.49a 12.60b 0.558 0.017 0.016
48 20.64 19.14 19.92 0.574 0.297 0.191
Butyrate 0 ND ND ND ND ND ND
(mM) 12 8.51a 7.38ab 5.71b 0.568 0.062 0.051
24 8.83b 10.82b 15.64a 1.060 0.015 0.021
48 11.74 12.12 15.28 1.735 0.404 0.430
Total VFA 0 28.97 28.67 28.81 0.087 0.269 0.236
(mM) 12 54.13 46.96 42.15 2.699 0.068 0.017
24 69.95a 63.35b 60.78b 1.569 0.014 0.030
48 74.19 72.47 75.98 2.379 0.578 0.761
A:P 0 4.69a 4.62ab 4.50b 0.025 0.001 0.002
12 2.33 2.64 2.73 0.155 0.243 0.302
24 2.32 2.21 2.59 0.105 0.126 0.057
48 2.03 2.15 2.05 0.052 0.409 0.330
  1. Values are shown as mean. Means for the same period (0 h, 12 h, 24 h, or 48 h) marked with the same letters (a > b > c) did not differ significantly within treatments (P < 0.05), as determined by Duncan's multiple range test. SEM is the standard error mean. C vs T is the comparison between control and treatments. Control (Con: 0 % RWR + TMR), Treatment 1 (T1: 10 % RWR + TMR), Treatment 2 (T2: 15 % RWR + TMR)