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Table 4 Growth performance and blood profiles of Hanwoo steers fed with or without Korean rice wine residue

From: Rumen fermentation and performance of Hanwoo steers fed total mixed ration with Korean rice wine residue

Parameters Con T1 T2 SEM P value
All C vs T
Growth performance
 Total gain (kg) 153.33b 168.00a 160.83ab 2.816 0.013 0.009
 ADG (kg/d) 1.00b 1.09a 1.04ab 0.018 0.012 0.008
 Feed intake 9.81 9.70 9.90 0.105 0.04 0.845
 Feed efficiency 0.102 0.112 0.105 0.002 0.053 0.082
Blood profiles
 Ethanol (%) 0 0 0 0 -  
 Albumin (g/dL) 3.68 3.66 3.87 0.088 0.202 0.45
 AST/SGOT (U/L) 66.78 59 59.89 3.406 0.246 0.099
 ALT/SGPT (U/L) 26.89 23.89 24.00 1.673 0.374 0.165
 Glucose (mg/dL) 63.00 60.56 69.56 3.044 0.124 0.591
 T. Chol (mg/dL) 114.22 110 123.33 6.248 0.358 0.764
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 26.11 25.44 30.44 2.571 0.356 0.572
 LDL (mg/dL) 17.33 14.89 18.44 1.202 0.124 0.655
 HDL (mg/dL) 99.33b 96.56b 108.44a 5.804 0.369 0.675
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.80b 0.80b 0.97a 0.047 0.028 0.178
 BUN (mg/dL) 14.14b 16.47a 11.04c 0.755 0 0.679
 Total protein (g/dL) 6.39ab 6.19b 6.61a 0.107 0.04 0.935
  1. Values are shown as mean. Means for the same period (0 h, 12 h, 24 h, or 48 h) marked with the same letters (a > b > c) did not differ significantly within treatments (P < 0.05), as determined by Duncan's multiple range test. SEM is the standard error mean. C vs T is the comparison between control and treatments. Control (Con: 0 % RWR + TMR), Treatment 1 (T1: 10 % RWR + TMR), Treatment 2 (T2: 15 % RWR + TMR)