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Table 2 Total feed and nutrient intake of goats supplemented with different levels of choline chloride through forced drinking during pregnancy and lactation periodsa

From: Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk production and milk composition of Etawah grade goats

Variables Level of choline chlorideb SEM P values
  g/2days   
  0 4 8   
Pregnancy period      
 Grass dry matter, g 559 631 569 67.52 0.094
 Total dry matter, g 1177 1248 1187 67.47 0.095
 Grass/Total dry matter, % 47.43 50.36 47.72 2.93 0.112
 Organic matter, g 1045 1110 1054 60.78 0.095
 Crude protein, g 148 156 150 7.03 0.094
 Total digestible nutrients, g 805 853 812 44.76 0.094
 Neutral detergent fiber, g 558 609 565 47.78 0.091
 Acid detergent fiber, g 356 391 361 33.30 0.092
 Crude fat, g 34.83 35.69 34.97 0.81 0.098
 Calcium, g 17.90 18.09 17.93 0.18 0.091
 Phosphorus, g 4.40 4.53 4.30 0.24 0.176
Lactation period      
 Grass dry matter, g 574 615 611 58.42 0.318
 Total dry matter, g 1192 1233 1228 58.46 0.315
 Grass/Total dry matter, % 47.97 49.83 49.62 2.36 0.250
 Organic matter, g 1058 1096 1092 52.60 0.307
 Crude protein, g 150 155 157 6.19 0.142
 Total digestible nutrients, g 836 865 862 41.00 0.314
 Neutral detergent fiber, g 569 598 595 41.52 0.317
 Acid detergent fiber, g 364 385 383 29.02 0.320
 Crude fat, g 35.00 35.50 35.47 0.70 0.286
 Calcium, g 17.93 18.04 18.04 0.15 0.289
 Phosphorus, g 4.42 4.51 4.50 0.11 0.227
  1. aOn a dry matter basis
  2. bBasal diet was supplemented with choline chloride through forced drinking technique
  3. SEM = standard error of the means