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Table 4 Effect of choline chloride supplementation through forced drinking on milk yields, milk composition and milk constituent yields responses of goats

From: Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk production and milk composition of Etawah grade goats

Variables Level of choline chloride (g/2days)a SEM P values
  0 4 8   
Average daily milk yields, ml/d 659d 771c 697cd 77.34 0.039
Average daily milk yields, g/d 678d 793c 717cd 77.34 0.039
Average daily 4 % FCM yields, g/d 756d 943c 870cd 91.28 0.004
Total milk yields 12 weeks, kg 56.90d 66.54c 60.18cd 6.53 0.034
Feed conversion ratiob 1.58c 1.31c 1.41d 0.07 <0.0001
Milk composition, %      
 Fat 4.77c 5.26d 5.42c 0.07 <0.0001
 Protein 3.49d 3.61c 3.65c 0.10 0.012
 Lactose 6.23d 6.28d 6.56c 0.09 <0.0001
 Specific gravity 1.028 1.028 1.028 0.00 0.251
 Solid non fat 10.19d 10.47c 10.45cd 0.09 0.009
 Total solids 15.24d 15.45cd 15.87c 0.45 0.036
Milk constituents yields, g/d      
 Fat 32.29d 41.71c 38.86c 4.02 0.001
 Protein 23.63d 28.63c 26.17cd 2.78 0.013
 Lactose 42.18d 49.77c 47.00cd 6.46 0.039
 Solid non fat 70.93d 80.76c 74.88c 10.63 0.009
 Total solids 103.24d 122.45c 113.71cd 11.97 0.038
Income over feed cost, U$ 0.93d 1.11c 0.97cd 1.883 0.037
  1. aBasal diet was supplemented with choline chloride through forced drinking technique
  2. bFeed conversion ratio = dry matter intake/4 % fat corrected milk yields
  3. c,dValues followed by different superscripts in the same row differ significantly (p < 0.05)
  4. SEM standard error of the means
  5. 4 % fat corrected milk (FCM) = (0.4 x milk yields) + (0.15 x milk yields x % fat)