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Table 7 Effects of persimmon peel (PP) supplementation on intramuscular fat (IMF), fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content of porcine longissimus dorsi muscle

From: Effects of persimmon peel supplementation on pork quality, palatability, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol level

  Treatmentc Level of significance
Control T1 T2 T3
IMF (%) 1.90 ± 0.80 2.90 ± 1.22 2.66 ± 0.23 2.78 ± 0.99 NS
Fatty acids
 SFA (%) 43.7 ± 0.35a 43.6 ± 0.61a 43.2 ± 0.59a 41.5 ± 0.81b *
 MUFA (%) 44.1 ± 0.63 44.4 ± 1.01 43.7 ± 0.80 45.0 ± 1.22 NS
 PUFA (%) 12.1 ± 0.21b 12.0 ± 0.45b 13.1 ± 0.55a 13.6 ± 0.65a *
 PUFA:SFA 0.28 ± 0.02b 0.28 ± 0.02b 0.30 ± 0.01ab 0.33 ± 0.01a *
 n-6 (%) 11.6 ± 0.97 11.4 ± 1.79 12.4 ± 1.51 12.9 ± 0.41 NS
 n-3 (%) 0.57 ± 0.06 0.58 ± 0.10 0.67 ± 0.14 0.68 ± 0.15 NS
 n-6:n-3 20.3 ± 1.31 19.7 ± 1.37 18.7 ± 1.93 19.6 ± 4.61 NS
h/H index 1.78 ± 0.07b 1.83 ± 0.07b 1.91 ± 0.11b 2.09 ± 0.12a **
Cholesterol (mg/100 g)
 Total cholesterol 99.1 ± 1.46a 96.4 ± 0.97ab 98.1 ± 2.60ab 94.4 ± 2.46b *
 HDL cholesterol 25.3 ± 1.23 29.4 ± 3.60 29.2 ± 0.39 25.5 ± 1.61 NS
 LDL cholesterol 51.4 ± 1.40a 45.2 ± 3.13b 46.6 ± 1.40b 47.4 ± 1.52b *
  1. cControl: basal diet; T1: basal diet with 0.3 % PP powder; T2: basal diet with 0.6 % PP powder; T3: basal diet with 0.9 % PP powder
  2. Results are expressed in mean value ± SD
  3. Levels of significance: NS = not significant; *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01
  4. a-bMeans within a row with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05)
  5. Abbreviations: SFA saturated fatty acid, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acid, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 sum of linoleic (C18:2n-6) γ-linolenic (C18:3n-6), eicosadienoic (C20:2n-6), and arachidonic (C20:4n-6) acids, n-3 sum of α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n-3), EPA (C20:5n-3), and DHA (C22:6n-3), n-6:n-3 ratio of n-6 to n-3, h:H index ratio of hypocholesterolemic to hypercholesterolemic potential [h/H = (18:1n-9 + 18:2n-6 + 20:4n-6 + 18:3n-3 + 20:5n-3 + 22:5n-3 + 22:6n-3)/(14:0 + 16:0)], HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein