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Table 3 Serum levels of cytokines in different study groups

From: Intrauterine diabetic milieu instigates dysregulated adipocytokines production in F1 offspring

Age (Weeks) Sex CF1-CD CF1-HCD DF1-CD DF1-HCD
Adiponectin (ng/ml)
5 Male 12.8 ± 1.2 12.5 ± 1.3 12.4 ± 1.5 12.1 ± 1.1
Female 17.9 ± 1.5*** 16.9 ± 1.6*** 17.0 ± 1.6*** 16.8 ± 1.8***
10 Male 13.2 ± 0.9 13 ± 1.2 12.0 ± 1.3* 11.4 ± 1.2*,**
Female 17.6 ± 1.4*** 16.5 ± 1.5*** 16.7 ± 1.5 16.2 ± 1.7***
15 Male 13.6 ± 1.4 13.1 ± 1.2 12.0 ± 1.4 11.2 ± 1.1*,**
Female 17.1 ± 1.5*** 16.4 ± 1.2*** 16.5 ± 1.6*** 16.3 ± 1.5***
20 Male 14 ± 1.1 12.6 ± 1.32* 11.8 ± 1.2* 9.8 ± 1*,**
Female 16.8 ± 1.6*** 16.5 ± 1.5*** 16.1 ± 2*** 15.6 ± 2***
25 Male 14.2 ± 1.3 12.4 ± 1.3* 10.5 ± 1.4*,** 9.3 ± 1.2*,**
Female 16.7 ± 2*** 16.6 ± 2*** 15.6 ± 1.8*** 14.9 ± 2*,**
30 Male 14.8 ± 1.2 12.5 ± 1.2* 10.0 ± 1.3*,** 9.2 ± 1.1*,**
Female 16.6 ± 1.9*** 16.4 ± 1.9*** 15.4 ± 2*** 14.2 ± 1.9*,**,***
Leptin (ng/ml)
5 Male 0.54 ± 0.08 0.56 ± 0.07 0.62 ± 0.11* 0.62 ± 0.1*
Female 1.6 ± 0.1*** 1.64 ± 0.12*** 1.71 ± 0.08***,** 1.68 ± 0.11**
10 Male 0.3 ± 0.09 0.44 ± 0.09* 0.38 ± 0.12* 0.46 ± 0.1*
Female 1.1 ± 0.09*** 1.18 ± 0.14*** 1.3 ± 0.07*,**,*** 1.43 ± 0.12*,**,***
15 Male 0.26 ± 0.08 0.43 ± 0.11* 0.34 ± 0.09*,** 0.45 ± 0.14*
Female 0.94 ± 0.08*** 0.96 ± 0.1*** 1.04 ± 0.11*** 1.22 ± 0.08*,**,***
20 Male 0.24 ± 0.11 0.41 ± 0.09* 0.330.08*,** 0.44 ± 0.12*
Female 0.81 ± 0.11*** 0.9 ± 0.06*** 0.95 ± 0.09*,*** 1.3 ± 0.11*,**,***
25 Male 0.22 ± 0.09 0.4 ± 0.11* 0.31 ± 0.1*,** 0.45 ± 0.14*
Female 0.84 ± 0.12*** 0.91 ± 0.14*** 0.97 ± 0.12*,*** 1.34 ± 0.1*,**,***
30 Male 0.19 ± 0.09 0.41 ± 0.11* 0.3 ± 0.05*,** 0.42 ± 0.15*
Female 0.9 ± 0.1*** 0.95 ± 0.1*** 0.97 ± 0.15*** 1.36 ± 0.12*,**,***
TNF-α (pg/ml)
5 Male 17 ± 2.1 23 ± 2.1* 26 ± 2.4*,** 29 ± 2.3*,**
Female 23 ± 3*** 24 ± 2.5 24 ± 2.7 26 ± 3*,***
10 Male 19 ± 2.3 22 ± 2.4* 37 ± 2.3*,** 46 ± 4*,**
Female 25 ± 3*** 26 ± 2.6*** 31 ± 3.4*,**,*** 29 ± 5*,**,***
15 Male 19 ± 2 23 ± 2* 42 ± 2.6*,** 55 ± 5.3*,**
Female 27 ± 4*** 31 ± 3*,*** 33 ± 3.1*,*** 34 ± 5*,***
20 Male 20 ± 2.4 25 ± 2.4* 52 ± 2*,** 61 ± 6*,**
Female 29 ± 3*** 33 ± 2.5*,*** 32 ± 3*** 36 ± 5*,***
25 Male 21 ± 2.1 27 ± 2.1* 60 ± 2.3*,** 66 ± 7*,**
Female 30 ± 2*** 34 ± 3*,*** 33 ± 4*** 41 ± 6*,**,***
30 Male 22 ± 1.8 31 ± 2.2* 71 ± 2.1*,** 74 ± 7.8*,**
Female 32 ± 3*** 35 ± 3*** 35 ± 3.8*** 44 ± 7*,**,***
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD (n = 10)
  2. Abbreviations denote: CF1-CD; F1 offspring of control mothers under control diet, CF1-HCD; F1 offspring of control mothers under HCD, DF1-CD; F1 offspring of diabetic mothers under control diet, and DF1-HCD; F1 offspring of diabetic mothers under HCD
  3. *Significant different from CF1-CD by ANOVA (p < 0.05)
  4. **Significant different from CF-HCD by ANOVA (p < 0.05)
  5. ***Significant different from male at each age by t-test (p < 0.05)