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Table 2 Effects of phytochemicals feed-additives on productive performance, carcass and meat quality of porcine

From: Dietary inclusion effects of phytochemicals as growth promoters in animal production

Reference Phasea Phytochemicals Dosage Productive performanceb Carcass quality Meat qualityc
[19] F Ferulic acid FA 12 and 15 ppm FA ≈ ractopamine average fat ≈ ractopamine -
[21] G Phlomis umbrosa Turcz, Cynanchum wilfordii Hemsley, Zingiber officinale Rosc, and Platycodi Radix. 0.05 and 0.15% ↑ ADG NE in ADFI and FCR NE  
[30] G and F Essential oil blend Dried herbs, spices and Quillaja saponaria saponins   ↑ ADG, FI and BW - -
[31] G Essential oils and Oleoresins (rosemary, garlic, oregano and ginger) 0.05% ↑ FI NE Minimal impact on the lipid oxidation
[33] I-F Tangerine 8% - - NE
[44] G Buckwheat, thyme, curcuma, black pepper and ginger - ↑ Improved ADG - -
[61] I Respig®; containing resveratrol and Biomin® PEP; containing essential oil blend 0.2% resveratrol and 0.0125% EO ↑ FCR - -
[63] I and G Benzoic acid and Thymol 100 or 200 mg of Thymol/Kg 200 mg of thymol ↑FCR - -
[83] F Biosun® Herbal extract (Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, ycium barbarum L., Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz, Shenqu, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fiseh) 250 mg /kg diet ↑ ADG - -
[87] F Ferulic Acid (FA) Vitamin E (VE) Individually or in Combination 0 or 100 mg/kg - ↑ pH45min value The combined addition of FA/ VE showed negative synergistic effects in inhibiting MDA production
[107] G Soy genistein 0, 200, 400, and 800 ppm ↑ growth performance - -
[108] G Daidzein 0, 200, 400, or 800 ppm ↑ ADG and FCR during periods of peak viremia - -
[110] G and F Captis chinensis herb extract   NE - ↑ Meat color, pH, WHC and UFA ↓SFA
[111] F Phytochemical additive blend 0.04% NE - ↓MDA content and ↑ SOD activity
[112] I-F Verbenaceae (Lippia spp.) leaves 5 mg/kg feed NE NE ↓TBARS values in the raw meat
[113] I-F Rosmarinus officinalis, Mentha piperita, Lippia sidoides and Porophyllum ruderale 2000 ppm NE - NE
[155] F Oregano 1000, 2000 or 3000 ppm - - 1000 ppm ↓Lipid oxidation
  1. aFeeding phase: I initial, G growing, F finalization
  2. b ADG average daily gain, BW body weight, ADFI average daily feed intake, DMI dry matter intake, FCR feed conversion ratio, FI feed intake, NE no effect
  3. c FAP fatty acid profile, MDA malondialdehyde, SOD super oxide dismutase, SFA saturated fatty acid, TBARS thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, UFA unsaturated fatty acid