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Table 2 Effect of cashew nut shell liquid and monensin supplementation under different dietary conditions on in vitro gas production

From: Potency of cashew nut shell liquid in rumen modulation under different dietary conditions and indication of its surfactant action against rumen bacteria

Gases mL/culture Forage to concentrate ratio P-value
9:1 7:3 5:5 3:7 1:9
Control Treatment Control Treatment Control Treatment Control Treatment Control Treatment Additive Diet A × D
Cashew nut shell liquid
 Total gas 4.00abc 3.58bc 4.84ab 4.27abc 4.87ab 3.32c 5.08a 3.56bc 4.81ab 3.69abc <0.001 0.173 0.213
 CO2 3.44ab 2.96ab 3.95ab 3.72ab 3.93ab 2.81b 4.08a 3.01ab 3.78ab 3.18ab <0.001 0.200 0.349
 CH4 0.54bc (100) 0.60bc (111) 0.88abc (100) 0.54c (61) 0.93ab (100) 0.50c (54) 0.98a (100) 0.53c (54) 1.02a (100) 0.50c (49) <0.001 0.103 0.008
 H2 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.744 0.466 0.428
Monensin
 Total gas 4.62 4.44 5.75 4.80 5.47 4.82 5.17 4.68 5.31 4.39 0.009 0.442 0.742
 CO2 3.61 3.30 4.47 3.71 4.03 3.69 3.79 3.66 3.96 3.50 0.059 0.535 0.875
 CH4 1.13ab (100) 1.14ab (101) 1.27a (100) 1.08ab (85) 1.43a (100) 1.12ab (85) 1.36a (100) 1.01ab (78) 1.35a (100) 0.73b (54) <0.001 0.295 0.092
 H2 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.001 0.642 0.949
  1. Values in parenthesis are relative percentages of methane production in treatment to that in control
  2. A × D indicates interaction between additive and diet effects
  3. a-cMeans within a row with different superscripts significantly differ (P < 0.05)