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Table 3 Effect of cashew nut shell liquid and monensin supplementation under different dietary conditions on in vitro short chain fatty acid production

From: Potency of cashew nut shell liquid in rumen modulation under different dietary conditions and indication of its surfactant action against rumen bacteria

Parameters Forage to concentrate ratio P-value
9:1 7:3 5:5 3:7 1:9
Control Treatment Control Treatment Control Treatment Control Treatment Control Treatment Additive Diet A × D
Cashew nut shell liquid
 Total SCFA 9.57c 9.81bc 9.64bc 10.67ab 10.26bc 11.36a 10.71ab 10.71ab 10.67ab 10.49abc 0.004 <0.001 0.019
 Acetate 6.44ab 6.41ab 6.40ab 6.70ab 6.72a 6.83a 6.82a 6.35bc 6.74a 6.12b 0.078 0.048 0.003
 Propionate 1.64e 2.11cde 1.71de 2.60b 1.90cde 3.32a 2.13bcd 3.30a 2.21bc 3.46a <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 n-Butyrate 1.13c 0.99de 1.20bc 1.07cd 1.30ab 0.94de 1.40a 0.84ef 1.36a 0.73f <0.001 0.011 <0.001
 Total SCFA 8.08b 7.96b 8.26b 8.29b 8.71ab 9.03ab 8.69ab 8.80ab 9.41a 8.73ab 0.650 <0.001 0.280
 Acetate 5.20ab 5.00ab 5.15ab 4.92ab 5.24ab 5.16ab 5.07ab 4.81ab 5.38a 4.69b 0.002 0.416 0.228
 Propionate 1.82cd 1.78d 1.92cd 2.16bcd 2.19bcd 2.65ab 2.33bc 2.91a 2.64ab 2.95a <0.001 <0.001 0.093
 n-Butyrate 0.82d 0.90cd 0.95bcd 0.99abcd 1.03abc 1.04abc 1.09ab 0.92bcd 1.16a 0.93bcd 0.029 <0.001 0.001
  molar %    
Cashew nut shell liquid
 Acetate 67.28a 65.35b 66.39ab 62.73c 65.48b 60.13d 63.72c 59.30de 63.22c 58.37e <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 Propionate 17.17f 21.46d 17.74f 24.34c 18.47ef 29.16b 19.90de 30.67b 20.72d 32.99a <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 n-Butyrate 11.80b 10.03c 12.43ab 10.05c 12.63ab 8.31d 13.08a 7.87d 12.72ab 6.90e <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 Acetate 64.21a 62.53a 62.33ab 59.33cd 60.12bc 57.19d 58.34cd 54.58e 57.23d 53.78e <0.001 <0.001 0.280
 Propionate 22.51de 22.27e 23.21de 26.00cde 25.02cde 29.29bc 26.67cd 33.05ab 28.11c 33.79a <0.001 <0.001 0.007
 n-Butyrate 10.19c 11.27abc 11.52abc 11.87abc 11.87abc 11.49abc 12.51a 10.47bc 12.37ab 10.57bc 0.034 0.119 0.001
  1. A × D indicates interaction between additive and diet effects
  2. a-fMeans within a row with different superscripts significantly differ (P < 0.05)