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Table 2 Least square means of WBSF and TPA texture profile as a function of muscle and cooking temperature at different ageing days of Hanwoo steer muscles

From: Mechanical texture profile of Hanwoo muscles as a function of heating temperatures

Musclesǂ Cooking temp WBSF(kg) Hardness(kg) Ψ Springiness Cohesiveness Chewiness
3d 21d 3d 21d 3d 21d 3d 21d 3d 21d
Psoas major 55 °C 3.11 2.93ab 3.46b 3.71 0.82a 0.48b 0.01 0.01b -0.02ab −0.04
70 °C 3.99 2.64b 4.22ab 4.08 0.49b 0.41b 0.01 0.01b 0.005aX −0.05Y
85 °C 4.51 3.40a 5.66a 4.41a 0.65ab 0.86a 0.02 0.03a −0.10b −0.1
Longissimus thoracis 55 °C 2.70c 2.59b 5.55 4.57 0.67 0.73 0.01b 0.01b −0.02a 0.06a
70 °C 4.30b 2.63b 5.74 5.47 0.74 0.69 0.02b 0.01b 0.02a 0.06a
85 °C 5.06a 3.47a 5.86 4.92 0.84 0.79 0.04a 0.04a −0.19b −0.18b
Gluteus medius 55 °C 3.68b 3.73b 6.32 5.06 0.73 0.89 0.01b 0.01b 0.07a 0.11a
70 °C 4.56ab 3.30b 6.13 5.72 0.7 0.65 0.01b 0.02b 0.08a 0.04a
85 °C 5.09a 3.88a 5.52 6.01 0.79 0.96 0.03a 0.04a −0.35b −0.19b
Semimembranosus 55 °C 4.39b 3.65b 6.17b 6.33 0.94 0.99 0.01b 0.01b 0.16 0.27
70 °C 5.06b 3.29b 7.05ab 6.68 0.92 0.83 0.02b 0.01b 0.21 0.09
85 °C 5.84a 3.92a 8.49a 6.5 0.98 0.96 0.03a 0.04a 0.03 0.08
Biceps femoris 55 °C 5.96b 6.22a 8.12a 6.89b 0.96 1.05 0.01b 0.01b 0.19 0.29
70 °C 7.59a 4.79b 7.71b 7.55b 1.18X 0.97Y 0.02b 0.02b 0.48X 0.13Y
85 °C 7.93a 5.54a 8.69a 7.87a 1.24 1.28 0.04a 0.04a 0.46 0.36
Triceps brachi 55 °C 8.34 7.11a 9.56a 5.34b 1.01 0.77 0.01b 0.01b 0.29 0.11
70 °C 8.46 4.00b 8.96b 6.7b 0.89 0.97 0.01b 0.02b 0.12 0.09
85 °C 8 6.73a 9.32a 7.02a 1.24 1.14 0.04a 0.05a 0.58 −0.11
SEM   0.18 0.18 0.27 0.19 0.04 0.05 0.001 0.002 0.05 0.04
F value
 Muscle   23.63*** 17.97*** 18.54*** 21.45*** 9.07*** 7.53*** 2.81* 0.99 8.64*** 4.23***
 Temperature   4.97** 10.75*** 1.27 5.44** 2.45 7.21*** 52.7*** 77.9*** 0.72 3.45*
 Muscle*Temperature   4.63*** 3.25*** 1.59 0.45 0.95 0.83 1.4 0.42 2.22* 0.96
  1. ǂPM, Psoas major; LT, Longissimus thoracis; GM, Gluteus medius; SM, Semimembranosus; BF, Biceps femoris; TB, Triceps brachi;
  2. a-cmeans within each column with different superscripts are significantly different
  3. X, Ymeans within each row with different superscripts are significantly different
  4. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05
  5. df, degrees of freedom
  6. ΨHardness: the peak force that occurs during the first compression, Springiness = Length 2/Length 1; Cohesiveness = Area 2/Area 1; Chewiness = Hardness x Springiness x Cohesiveness (Fig. 2)