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Table 1 List of some Long non-coding RNAs and their role in different tissues

From: Long non-coding RNA: its evolutionary relics and biological implications in mammals: a review

SN Type or Family Target Tissue Role Reference
1 Heat shock RNA1 (HSR1) Various tissues • stimulates trimerization of heat-shock factor
1 (HSF1)with eukaryotic translation elongation
factor 1A
2 Meiotic recombination hot spot1 locus (Mrhl) Located in nucleus • Regulate spermatogenesis [23]
3 HongrES2 Expressed specifically in the cauda-epididymis • The transcript mil-HongrES2 inhibits
expression of an epididymis-specific protein CES7 and its cholesterol esterase activity;
• its overexpression results in retarded sperm
4 Testis-specific X-linked (Tsx) Expressed in pachytene
• regulatory role in germline meiotic division [1]
5 Dmrt1-related gene (Dmr) Testis-specific • essential transcription factor that promotesspermatogonial development by up-regulating
Sohlh1 (Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis Specific Basic Helix-Loop-Helix 1);
• prevents premature meiosis in spermatogonia
by repressing Stra8 (Gene stimulated by retinoic acid 8)
6 Homeobox antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) Gastric adenocarcinoma tissues, Lung, Breast, Kidney • Promotes cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis
• Increased expression may affect genomic relocalization of the polycomb repressive complex 2;
• Can enhance trimethylation of H3K27;
• biomarker for poor prognosis in colorectal cancer
[32, 48]
7 Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) Lung, pancreas • Promotes cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis
• Knockdown of MALAT1 (in HCC cell line) demonstrated amarked reduction in tumor progression. So it can be used as negative prognostic biomarker
8 Maternally Expressed Gene (MEG3) Glioma cells, bladder, gastric tissues • Tumor suppressive
• Due to down-regulated expression in various tumor conditions including meningioma and glioma, it acts as tumor suppressor
9 Taurineupregulated gene 1 (TUG1) Osteosarcoma tissue • Tumor suppressive
• Inhibit apoptosis
10 GAS5 Lung, breast, colorectal, kidney, prostate • Induces apoptosis and suppresses miR-21 expression [92]
11 BRAF Activated Noncoding RNA (BANCR) Lung • Tumor suppressive [96]
12 H19 Lung • Tumor suppressor gene
• Higher H19 expression due to demethylation of promoter region results in induction of lung cancer
[12, 77]