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Table 3 Effect of nZnO levels on the rumen fluid VFA (n = 4 observations/treatment)

From: In vitro evaluation of nano zinc oxide (nZnO) on mitigation of gaseous emissions

Effects Alfalfa Maize silage Control 100 μg g−1 200 μg g− 1 500 μg g− 1 1000 μg g− 1 SEMa P value
Feed nZnO nZnOa
Feed
Acetic Acid (mM) 108x 107x 122a 97.1b 98b 108ab 114a 14.15 0.832 0.005 0.172
Propionic Acid (mM) 33.05x 49.53y 50.88a 34.01c 36.94bc 41.11bc 43.50ab 7.68 <.0001 0.002 0.688
P/A ratio 0.306x 0.444y 0.423a 0.389a 0.369a 0.379a 0.380a 0.058 0.189 0.004 0.007
Total VFA (mM) 161x 173x 193a 149c 152bc 166bc 174ab 21.51 0.086 0.002 0.743
  1. aData are presented as least square means per treatment ± SEM
  2. Means followed by the letters (x/y/a/b/c/d) in each VFA type are not significantly different at P ≤ 0.05
  3. VFA Volatile Fatty Acid, P/A Propionic acid to Acetic acid ratio