Evaluation of different milking practices for optimum production performance in Sahiwal cows
© Aslam et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 28 July 2014
Accepted: 28 July 2014
Published: 7 August 2014
The production performance of multiparous lactating Sahiwal cows (n = 24) was evaluated according to both milking frequency and method. Selected animals were randomly divided into four groups containing six animals each under a completely randomized design. Cows in groups A & B were milked by the hand milking method three times per day, respectively. Similarly, cows in groups C & D were milked by the machine milking method two and three times per day, respectively. All animals were maintained under uniform feeding and management conditions. Dry matter intake was high in animal groups milked three times per day, and it remained unchanged between the hand and machine milking methods. Milk yield was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked three times compared to those milked twice per day, and it did not differ between hand and machine milking methods. Milk fat percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked twice per day compared to those milked three times using both machine and hand milking methods. The percentage of total solids showed a similar pattern as the fat percentage. However, percentages of protein, lactose, and non-fat solids in milk were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the treatment groups. Collectively, the results show that milking three times per day instead of twice at 8-hour intervals can enhance milk yield in Sahiwal cows using both hand and machine milking methods.
Demand for milk in Pakistan is rising due to an increasing human population and higher inclination towards consumption of milk and milk products. Milk is the largest commodity amongst dairy products, making Pakistan the 4th largest milk-producing country in worldwide. A total of 49.5 billion kg of milk was produced during the 2012-13 year . Major sources of milk in Pakistan are cattle and buffaloes, as the country is blessed with suitable tropical breeds of dairy cattle. Sahiwal is one such renowned tropical dairy cattle breed due to its excellent heat and tick resistance [2, 3]. As such, the performance of this breed in a tropical environment is also better than other cattle breeds due its better resistance to tick-borne diseases .
Cow milking is considered to be one of the most laborious and time-consuming activities at livestock farms. Additionally, considerable cost goes into this major farm operation. As a result, machine milking was invented to improve labor efficiency due to growing costs . Machine milking has been shown to have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, reduce labor by up to 18%, and improve dairy cow welfare.
Increasing milking frequency from twice to three times per day may correspondingly increase milk yield from 6 to 25% during complete lactation as well as improve udder health by reducing the somatic cell count (SCC) [6–8]. The chance of clinical mastitis has also been reported to be lower in cows milked three times or more than in those milked only twice per day . Milk yield can be increased by machine milking, which has beneficial effects on udder health [10, 11]. Moreover, milking three times per day has been shown to increase milk yield by up to 14% compared to milking only twice per day . The literature is limited regarding the effects of milking frequency as well as machine milking on milk yield, composition, and udder health of Pakistani cattle. Therefore, this study investigated the optimal milking frequency and milking method for improved production performance in Sahiwal cows.
Precinct of study
The study was conducted at the Livestock Experiment Station Jahangirabad, Khanewal. This station is situated in south central irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. Its geographical coordinates are 30° 18' 0" North, 71° 56' 0" East. Jahangirabad town in Khanewal District is well known as the homeland of Sahiwal cows, a renowned tropical dairy cattle breed in Pakistan [2, 3, 13]).
Experimental animals and treatment groups
Layout of experiment
Frequency of daily milking
Feeding of animals
Ingredient and nutrient composition
Inclusion level (%)
Cotton seed Cake
Maize gluten 30
Maize grain broken
Milking of cows
Cows in groups A & B were subjected to the hand milking method, whereas cows in groups C & D were milked using a portable milking machine. However, groups A & C were milked twice per day at 12-hour intervals at 3:00 and 15:00 hours, whereas groups B & D were milked three times per day at 8-hour intervals at 2:00, 10:00, and 18:00 hours. Prior to milking, the udder of each cow was thoroughly washed with moderate warm water & dried properly. The milking machine was thoroughly washed with acid and alkali solutions in lukewarm water.
Data recording and parameters
Dry matter intake (kg)
Milk yield (kg)
Analyses were performed in the Food & Nutrition and Quality Operation Labs at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS), Lahore. Dry matter content of feed samples was determined according to the procedures of ). Milk composition analysis was carried out using a Lactoscan-S Milk Analyzer (50 W, Milkotronic Ltd., Bulgaria) in WTO-Quality Operation Labs at the UVAS, Lahore for the following milk constituents: milk fat, non-fat solids, milk protein, lactose, and total solids.
Y ij = each observation on ith treatment due to jth animal.
μ = overall mean.
τ i = effect of ith treatment (Σ τi = 0 and i = 1, 2, 3, 4).
ϵ ij = random error associated with ith treatment and jth animal with the restriction that variance σ 2 and mean zero.
Results and discussion
Dry Matter Intake
Effect of milking frequency & method on dry matter intake and milk yield in Sahiwal cows
Hand milking twice (A)
Hand milking thrice (B)
Machine milking twice (C)
Machine milking thrice (D)
Dry matter intake (Kg/day)
7.50 ± 0.18b
9.30 ± 0.11a
7.90 ± 0.15b
9.50 ± 0.15a
Milk yield (Kg)
9.08 ± 0.15b
11.50 ± 0.18a
9.25 ± 0.21b
11.75 ± 0.28a
Average daily milk yields are presented in Table 3. Milk yield was higher (P < 0.05) in cows milked three times daily compared to cows milked twice. Milk production between the machine and hand milking treatment groups was not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, higher milking frequency significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced milk yield.
Our observation of an association between enhanced milking frequency and greater milk yield has been substantiated by the literature. In a previous study,  reported that milk yield increased by up to 10.4% in cows milked three times per day compared to those milked twice per day. Similarly,  showed that milking three times daily increased milk yield in cows by up to 18%. In another study,  showed that the yield of energy corrected milk was higher in cows milked three times per day compared to those milked twice per day.
Similarly,  affirmed that milking three times per day rather than twice increased milk yield in crossbred (different blood ratios among Friesian, Hariana, Brown Swiss, and Jersey breeds) cows, but at the cost of their body condition. The higher milk yield in cows milked three times per day might be due to the fact that milk secretion is a continuous process resulting in gradual elevation of internal udder pressure. Thus, more frequent milking might reduce internal udder pressure and consequently stimulate milk-secreting cells to operate at full capacity for a longer time.
Effects of milking frequency & method on milk composition in Sahiwal cows
Hand milking twice (A)
Hand milking thrice (B)
Machine milking twice (C)
Machine milking thrice (D)
3.35 ± 0.06
3.25 ± 0.06
3.35 ± 0.06
3.22 ± 0.08
3.68 ± 0.04a
3.45 ± 0.03b
3.70 ± 0.04a
3.50 ± 0.04b
4.82 ± 0.06
4.87 ± 0.02
4.90 ± 0.04
4.92 ± 0.02
12.7 ± 0.04a
12.4 ± 0.04b
12.7 ± 0.04a
12.4 ± 0.04b
However, the percentages of protein and lactose in milk were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among cows in the different treatment groups. Milk fat content has been shown to be affected by milking frequency [7, 24, 25]). Similarly, cows milked three times per day produce milk with a lower fat content compared to those milked once a day during early lactation . The negative effect of frequent milking on fat content can be attributed to increased air exposure due to frequent milking, enzymatic activity of fatty acid syntethase, and increased production of short-chain fatty acids . Another factor might be the shortened time for fat synthesis in the case of 8-hour intervals. The high percentage of total solids in milk from cows milked twice daily might be due to a high fat percentage.
It can be concluded that milking three times instead of only twice per day at 8-hour intervals can enhance milk yield in Sahiwal cows using both hand and machine milking methods.
This work was supported by the Directorate of Research Centre for Conservation of Sahiwal Cattle, Livestock & Dairy Development Department, Government of Punjab, Pakistan as well as the Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (PJ009289042014), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
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