Length polymorphism in OGT between Korean native pig, Chinese Meishan, and the Western pig breeds
© Nam et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
Received: 30 August 2014
Accepted: 20 January 2015
Published: 14 March 2015
The Korean native pig (KNP) is generally thought to have come from northern China to the Korean peninsula approximately 2000 years ago. KNP pigs were at the brink of extinction in the 1980s, since then efforts have been made to restore the breed by bringing together the remaining stocks in South Korea. As a result, KNP was registered as a breed in 2006. To find additional breed-specific markers that are distinct among pig breeds, variations in O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) were investigated. OGT is located on chromosome X and catalyzes the post-translational addition of a single O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine to target proteins.
Length polymorphism in the intron 20 of OGT was identified. The intron 20 of OGT from Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire breeds was 281-bp longer than that from either KNP or Chinese Meishan pigs. The difference between the Western pig breeds (BB genotype) and KNP or Meishan pigs (AA genotype) was due to an inserted 276-bp element and the 5-bp ACTTG.
The polymorphism in OGT identified in this study may be used as an additional marker for determining the breed of origin among Meishan and the Western pig breeds. The length polymorphism suggests that the locus near OGT is not fixed in KNP. This marker would be relevant in determining the breed of origin in crossbred pigs between KNP pigs with known genotypes and the Western pig breeds with BB genotypes, thus confirming the contribution of the X chromosome from each breed.
The Korean native pig (KNP) is generally believed to have come from northern China to the Korean peninsula approximately 2000 years ago . KNP pigs have black coat color in general and were at the brink of extinction in the 1980s due to their smaller animal size and slower growth rate . Since then, effort has been made to restore the breed by bringing together the remaining stocks from a few provinces in the Republic of Korea [2-4]. As a result, the restored KNP has been registered as a breed in 2006 . Genetic relationships between KNP, Chinese Meishan  and Western [4,5] pig breeds have been determined using microsatellite markers. To find additional breed-specific markers that are distinct among pig breeds, several genes including O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) were investigated. OGT is located on chromosome X and catalyzes the post-translational addition of a single O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on the hydroxyl groups of Ser and/or Thr residues of target proteins . GlcNAcylation regulates cellular signaling and transcription processes in response to nutrients and stress, and has extensive crosstalk with phosphorylation . OGT is also involved in nutrient sensing . OGT has been mapped within the quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting backfat depth, boar plasma FSH, and testicular weight using a length polymorphism within the intron 20 of OGT between Chinese and the Western pig breeds . This genomic region located on chromosome X was investigated using Meishan (MS) x White composite (WC) crossbred boars . Further, boars with MS alleles at the region had smaller testicles and lower total daily sperm production than boars with WC alleles . In MS x WC crossbred boars, the length polymorphism in OGT was applicable to genotyping and identifying the breed of origin . Therefore, the role of OGT and differential contribution of the X chromosome from each breed in crossbred pigs is worthy of further investigation. The first objective of this study was to determine whether the length polymorphism in the intron 20 of OGT was present in KNP and this polymorphism could be used as a breed-specific marker among KNP, Chinese Meishan, and the Western pig breeds. In addition, KNP pigs have been used to produce specialty meat and they have been crossbred to Landrace or Yorkshire breeds for growth and meat quality trait studies in Korea [11-13]. Thus, the second objective of this study was to determine whether the length polymorphism can be used as a breed-specific marker in screening the breed of origin in crossbred pigs between KNP with known genotypes and the Western pig breeds.
The experimental protocol and standard operating procedures on experimental animals were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the National Institute of Animal Science, RDA (Suwon, Republic of Korea), in compliance with standard international regulations. Initially, 10 animals for each breed from the breeding stocks at the National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea were analyzed for the presence of the length polymorphism. The animals included 10 Duroc sows, 5 Landrace boars and 5 sows, 3 Yorkshire boars and 7 sows, 5 KNP boars and 5 sows, 1 Meishan boar, 8 sows and 1 unknown sex, and 10 Duroc x KNP crossbred sows. Subsequently, the number of pigs was increased to include 40 Duroc, 36 Landrace, 36 Yorkshire, 39 KNP, 10 Meishan, and 15 Duroc x KNP crossbred pigs (n = 176). Blood samples were collected and DNA was isolated.
Primer design, PCR amplification, genotyping, and sequencing
Primers were designed to amplify across the intron 20 based on the porcine OGT cDNA (GenBank accession no. DQ400859) and the gene sequence in the Genome Browser for pig (http://genome.ucsc.edu/). The forward (2968F) and reverse (3083R) primers correspond to bases 2968–2987 and 3083–3059 of the porcine OGT cDNA (GenBank accession no. DQ400859), respectively, and the expected size of the PCR amplicon across intron 20 was 631 bp. PCR reactions were carried out in a 20-μl volume containing 30 ng of genomic DNA, 2 mM MgCl2, 10 pmol of each primer (OGT-2968F: 5′-GCACACCACAGGGATGGATG-3′ and OGT- 3083R: 5′- GCTCAAGACAACCTAAACAAGTAAG-3′), 200 μM dNTP, and 2 U Top-Taq™ DNA polymerase (Qiagen, Germany). Amplification was performed under the following PCR conditions: 10 min at 95°C; 35 cycles of 30 sec at 95°C, annealing for 30 sec at 60°C, and 1 min at 72°C; and a final extension of 5 min at 72°C. Length polymorphism among the pig breeds was determined after gel electrophoresis. Genotypes of the OGT gene among the Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire, KNP, Meishan, and Duroc x KNP pigs (n = 176) were determined. A number of pigs were sequenced to confirm the OGT genotypes of Duroc, KNP, and Meishan pigs.
Results and discussion
When the entire intron 20 sequence of OGT from Duroc (GenBank accession no. JQ045376) was compared using the algorithm “Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)”, it was revealed that several homologous regions to this sequence existed in the human chromosome X and in pig chromosomes. However, when the inserted 276-bp element of the intron 20 was compared using the BLAST, homologous regions existed only in several pig chromosomes, but not in any other species. The sizes of the OGT intron 20 from human, cattle, and mice were 240, 243, and 262 bp (http://genome.ucsc.edu/), respectively, and thus, they are similar to the 233-bp intron from either Meishan or KNP boars. Sequence homologies of the OGT intron 20 of Meishan and KNP boars, which do not contain the inserted 276-bp element and the 5-bp ACTTG of the OGT intron 20, with those of the human, cattle and mice were 76.3%, 69.5%, and 62.0%, respectively. This suggests that the 276-bp element and the 5-bp ACTTG of the OGT intron 20 in Duroc and other Western pig breeds may have been inserted differentially during the domestication process in different regions.
Frequency of OGT genotypes among different pig breeds
Duroc x KNP
In conclusion, the length polymorphism in the intron 20 of OGT may be used as an additional marker for determining the breed of origin among Chinese Meishan and the Western pig breeds including Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire. The polymorphism identified in this study suggests that the locus near OGT is not fixed in KNP pigs, and this marker may supplement the restoration effort of KNP as an additional mean to verify the origin of the breed near this locus. It would be also relevant in determining the breed of origin in crossbred pigs between KNP with known genotypes and Duroc or other Western breeds with BB genotypes, and thus confirming the contribution of the X chromosome from each breed.
This work was supported in part by a grant from the Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program (No. PJ008047), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
- Kim KS, Choi CB. Genetic structure of Korean native pig using microsatellite markers. Korean J Genet. 2002;24:1–7.Google Scholar
- Kwon OS. Preservation and current status of Korean native pig-in Korean. In: Lee SJ et al., editors. Symposium on preservation and utilization of Korean native pig-in Korean. Chonan, Republic of Korea: Sangrok-sa; 2006. p. 3–20.Google Scholar
- Kim MJ. Restoration of Korean native pig-in Korean. In: Jung IB, editor. Raising Korean native pig-in Korean. Chonan, Republic of Korea: Sangrok-sa; 2008. p. 21–30.Google Scholar
- Kim TH, Kim KS, Choi BH, Yoon DH, Jang GW, Lee KT, et al. Genetic structure of pig breeds from Korea and China using microsatellite loci analysis. J Anim Sci. 2005;83:2255–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim MJ, Li GH, Oh JD, Cho KH, Jeon GJ, Choi BH, et al. Characterization of a Korean traditional porcine breed using microsatellite markers and the establishment of an individual identification system. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour. 2007;27:150–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Butkinaree C, Park K, Hart GW. O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc): Extensive crosstalk with phosphorylation to regulate signaling and transcription in response to nutrients and stress. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1800;2010:96–106.Google Scholar
- Hanover JA, Krause MW, Love DC. The hexosamine signaling pathway: O-GlcNAc cycling in feast or famine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1800;2010:80–95.Google Scholar
- Kim JG, Ford JJ, Rohrer GA, Nonneman D. Molecular cloning of porcine OGT cDNA and mapping to the X chromosome [abstract]. Biol Reprod. 2006;Supplement:154.Google Scholar
- Rohrer GA, Wise TH, Lunstra DD, Ford JJ. Identification of genomic regions controlling plasma FSH concentrations in Meishan-White Composite boars. Physiol Genomics. 2001;6:145–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ford JJ, Wise TH, Lunstra DD, Rohrer GA. Interrelationships of porcine X and Y chromosomes with pituitary gonadotropins and testicular size. Biol Reprod. 2001;65:906–12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim EH, Choi BH, Kim KS, Lee CK, Cho BW, Kim TH, et al. Detection of Mendelian and parent-of-origin quantitative trait loci in a cross between Korean native pig and Landrace I. Growth and body composition traits. Asian Austral J Anim. 2007;20:669–76.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim SW, Li XP, Lee YM, Choi YI, Cho BW, Choi BH, et al. QTL scan for meat quality traits using high-density SNP chip analysis in cross between Korean native pig and Yorkshire. Asian Austral J Anim. 2011;24:1184–91.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Niu P, Kim SW, Choi BH, Kim TH, Kim JJ, Kim KS. Porcine insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene polymorphisms are associated with body size variation. Genes Genom. 2013;35:523–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.